This is the sixth article in a series to explain the basics of Ubuntu Development in a way that does not require huge amounts of background and goes through concepts, tools, processes and infrastructure step by step. If you like the article or have questions or found bugs, please leave a comment.
Security and Stable Release Updates
Fixing a Security Bug in Ubuntu
Fixing security bugs in Ubuntu is not really any different than fixing a regular bug in Ubuntu, and it is assumed that you are familiar with patching normal bugs. To demonstrate where things are different, we will be updating the dbus package in Ubuntu 10.04 LTS (Lucid Lynx) for a security update.
Obtaining the source
In this example, we already know we want to fix the dbus package in Ubuntu 10.04 LTS (Lucid Lynx). So first you need to determine the version of the package you want to download. We can use the rmadison to help with this:
$ rmadison dbus | grep lucid dbus | 1.2.16-2ubuntu4 | lucid | source, amd64, i386 dbus | 1.2.16-2ubuntu4.1 | lucid-security | source, amd64, i386 dbus | 1.2.16-2ubuntu4.2 | lucid-updates | source, amd64, i386
Typically you will want to choose the highest version for the release you want to patch that is not in -proposed or -backports. Since we are updating Lucid’s dbus, you’ll download 1.2.16-2ubuntu4.2 from lucid-updates:
$ bzr branch ubuntu:lucid-updates/dbus
Patching the source
Now that we have the source package, we need to patch it to fix the vulnerability. You may use whatever patch method that is appropriate for the package, including UDD techniques, but this example will use edit-patch (from the ubuntu-dev-tools package). edit-patch is the easiest way to patch packages and it is basically a wrapper around every other patch system you can imagine.
To create your patch using edit-patch:
$ cd dbus $ edit-patch 99-fix-a-vulnerability
This will apply the existing patches and put the packaging in a temporary directory. Now edit the files needed to fix the vulnerability. Often upstream will have provided a patch so you can apply that patch:
$ patch -p1 < /home/user/dbus-vulnerability.diff
Aftering making the necessary changes, you just hit Ctrl-D or type exit to leave the temporary shell.
Formatting the changelog and patches
After applying your patches you will want to update the changelog. The dch command is used to edit the debian/changelog file and edit-patch will launch dch automatically after unapplying all the patches. If you are not using edit-patch, you can launch dch -i manually. Unlike with regular patches, you should use the following format (note the distribution name uses lucid-security since this is a security update for Lucid) for security updates:
dbus (1.2.16-2ubuntu4.3) lucid-security; urgency=low * SECURITY UPDATE: [DESCRIBE VULNERABILITY HERE] - debian/patches/99-fix-a-vulnerability.patch: [DESCRIBE CHANGES HERE] - [CVE IDENTIFIER] - [LINK TO UPSTREAM BUG OR SECURITY NOTICE] - LP: #[BUG NUMBER] ...
Update your patch to use the appropriate patch tags. Your patch should have at a minimum the Origin, Description and Bug-Ubuntu tags. For example, edit debian/patches/99-fix-a-vulnerability.patch to have something like:
## Description: [DESCRIBE VULNERABILITY HERE] ## Origin/Author: [COMMIT ID, URL OR EMAIL ADDRESS OF AUTHOR] ## Bug: [UPSTREAM BUG URL] ## Bug-Ubuntu: https://launchpad.net/bugs/[BUG NUMBER] Index: dbus-1.2.16/dbus/dbus-marshal-validate.c ...
Multiple vulnerabilities can be fixed in the same security upload; just be sure to use different patches for different vulnerabilities.
Test and Submit your work
At this point the process is the same as for fixing a regular bug in Ubuntu. Specifically, you will want to:
- Build your package and verify that it compiles without error and without any added compiler warnings
- Upgrade to the new version of the package from the previous version
- Test that the new package fixes the vulnerability and does not introduce any regressions
- Submit your work via a Launchpad merge proposal and file a Launchpad bug being sure to mark the bug as a security bug and to subscribe ubuntu-security-sponsors
If the security vulnerability is not yet public then do not file a merge proposal and ensure you mark the bug as private.
The filed bug should include a Test Case, i.e. a comment which clearly shows how to recreate the bug by running the old version then how to ensure the bug no longer exists in the new version.
The bug report should also confirm that the issue is fixed in Ubuntu versions newer than the one with the proposed fix (in the above example newer than Lucid). If the issue is not fixed in newer Ubuntu versions you should prepare updates for those versions too.
Stable Release Updates
We also allow updates to releases where a package has a high impact bug such as a severe regression from a previous release or a bug which could cause data loss. Due to the potential for such updates to themselves introduce bugs we only allow this where the change can be easily understood and verified.
The process for Stable Release Updates is just the same as the proccess for security bugs except you should subscribe ubuntu-sru to the bug.
The update will go into the proposed archive (for example lucid-proposed) where it will need to be checked that it fixes the problem and does not introduce new problems. After a week without reported problems it can be moved to updates.
See the Stable Release Updates wiki page for more information.